Testicular Cancer Links


Prostate Cancer

General Info Risk Factors pH Levels and the Prostate


General Info PSA Test AMAS Test Gleason Score


Alternative vs Conventional Client Testimonials Press Releases
Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer
While researchers still do not know the exact answer to this question, they have identified some risk factors.

  1. Age

    As you grow older, your chance of having a diagnosis of prostate cancer increases. In fact, we believe that one of the reasons that prostate cancer is now so much more common than it was 50 years ago is very obvious: more men live longer today than they did 50 years ago. If you live longer, your chance of having a diagnosis of prostate cancer goes up proportionally. There are some studies, based on post mortem findings, estimating that all men would have prostate cancer if they all lived to over a hundred. 

    The average age of men diagnosed with prostate cancer in America is still over 60 years (although diagnosis in younger men is much more common than it used to be). And the range of ages is very wide. Cases of prostate cancer have first been seen in men in their twenties and in men in their nineties.

    Back to Top

  2. Family History

    Generally speaking, men with a father or brother diagnosed with prostate cancer at a relatively young age are at a greater risk of getting the disease themselves, compared to the average man.  Having an elderly relative with prostate cancer is not uncommon and doesn't increase risk.

    The risk appears to be higher if you have a brother with prostate cancer than it is if you have a father with prostate cancer.  The risk is higher still if you have more than one relative diagnosed with prostate cancer.

    It is important to remember that statistics are always a generalization.  There are likely to be specific factors at work for some men, which increase their risk.  Others not affected by these factors may not have an increased risk, despite having a relative with prostate cancer. 

    The reason risk is greater if your family member was young when diagnosed or if you have several relatives with prostate cancer is that these are signs that there could be a faulty gene running in the family.  The younger the age at diagnosis, the more likely it is that a faulty gene is at work.  Remember - for there to be a gene at work, the affected relatives have to come from the same side of your family (your mother's side or your father's side).  There is no gene test because specific faulty genes for prostate cancer haven't been clearly identified yet.

    Families that carry the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 also have an increased risk of prostate cancer.  We now know that men who carry the BRCA1 gene have almost twice the risk of getting prostate cancer before the age of 65, when compared with the average man under 65.  This sounds dramatic, but the risk of prostate cancer under 65 years is relatively low.  Once you are over 65, the risk of prostate cancer is the same as any man over 65.

    For the BRCA2 gene, the risks are higher.  If you carry this gene, you have 7 times the risk of getting prostate cancer before you are 65, when compared with the average man under 65.  Once you are over 65, you have 4.5 times the risk of prostate cancer if you carry this gene, when compared to the average man over 65.

    Back to Top

  3. Race

    Prostate cancer is much more common in some races than in others. For example, Japanese men living in Japan have an extremely low incidence of prostate cancer. By comparison African American men are at very high risk of this disease. The death rate for prostate cancer is more than 2 times higher in African-American men than in Caucasian/Asian men. Why is this? We don't know. What we do know is that it isn't just about their genetics and heritage, because men of Japanese origin living in America have a similar risk of prostate cancer as any other average American man living in the same area! However, race can be an important factor in determining when a man should have a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test and digital rectal exam (DRE) once every year for signs of prostate cancer.

    Back to Top
  4. Environment

    The cleaner your environment the less likely you are to be at risk of prostate cancer. Many different environmental factors have been considered as possible contributers to prostate cancer, which include:

    Cadmium is listed in the FEDERAL REPORT ON CARCINOGENS as a ‘known carcinogen’. Researchers at Georgetown University found that Cadmium mimics estrogen, in fact they state ‘cadmiums ability to functionally mimic estrogen is quite remarkable’. The study shows that cadmium has estrogenic effects on humans and animals alike. Researchers at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences reported that cadmium disturbs a DNA repair system that is important in preventing cancer. If the cells DNA are damaged by free radicals, for example, the cell would be unable to repair the damage and an error would be made when the cell replicated itself and a mutated cell would take the place of the once normal cell. What we have shown said Dr. Gordonin, one of the lead researchers on the study, is that environmental factors such as cadmium can cause high levels of mutations not only by damaging DNA but also by inhibiting DNA repair. With relatively little exposure to cadmium, a living cell may increase its rate of mutation drastically- as much as 2,000 fold. Another troubling finding of the research is that cadmium also inhibits a gene which the cell uses to suppress a cancer cell; this is known as gene suppressor p-53. When this occurs a mutant cell is allowed to grow.

    We are all exposed to cadmium, as 15,000 tons of it is produced every year. It is commonly used in batteries, fertilizer, paint pigments and as late as 1997 as a fungicide for grass. It is still used today as a deicer. Cadmium is also found naturally occurring in the soil but it is in cigarette smoke and industrial waste that we are most affected by it. It is in our food and water supply and once we ingest it, it will take 20 years for just half of it to dissipate and we are continually being contaminated. When you consider the tens of thousands of chemicals that are in our environment, it is no wonder that cancer rates are skyrocketing. What have you really accomplished by removing one cancer and leaving the cause of the cancer in your body. Apple pectin, calcium, magnesium, selenium, chlorophyll and EDTA chelation therapy have all been shown to be effective chelators of cadmium, lead, nickel and petro chemicals from the body. In addition Nutrition 2000 has a homeopathic product called Metalmint which is an excellent chelator of metals.

    PCB'S (Chemicals)
    The EPA reports that there is no pure body of water in the North American continent! It is all contaminated with man made chemicals, even glaciers and aquifers deep in the ground. We are being poisoned as we speak. The air we breathe is the same air that was in some third world country or passing over some industrial smoke stack yesterday. When it rains, the pollution it has absorbed is deposited into the surface and ground water. When we drink any unfiltered water, the chemicals that has been absorbed, accumulate in our bodies and at some point impact our health. Water is the natural solvent, it will absorb anything it comes into contact with, take water and tea leaves and what do you have? How about coffee, Clorox or gasoline? The only way to get clean water is to filter or distill it. One chemical that is particular worrisome is PCB’s. Research reveals that pcb’s will significantly inhibit testosterone. To make matters worse they too act as xenoestrogens and will bind with the hormone receptor sites on the prostate and in the tissues of the testicles. In fact, research reveals that in some cases testosterone is displaced by pcb’s in over 50% of the available binding sites in the bodies of some men. Another aspect of chemicals is the impact they have on our immune system. Glutathione levels are impacted adversely as just one example, cancer will not grow in the presence of glutathione. Belgian researchers found men who spray pesticides are at higher risk of developing prostate cancer and research by U.S. Government reports that men exposed to agricultural chemicals such as chlorinated pesticides and methyl bromide were at greater risk as well. We all have exposure and much of it accumulates in our body until it reaches levels which trigger a reaction. It is therefore imperative that we avoid and cleanse ourselves periodically to lessen and at least minimize their impact on us. The liver is the primary detoxification organ of chemicals, Milk thistle will protect the liver from these chemicals so that it (liver) can render these carcinogens harmless ship them out to the colon for export.

    Exposure to mercury is one of the most toxic substances you can be contaminated with. It has horrendous effects in the entire body, but it has a special affinity for the nervous system. Mercury has been linked to dementia, depression memory loss and the inability to make a decision to name but a few of its effects on our cognition. Many researchers believe the problem of mercury to be so pervasive that everyone is at risk. As it relates specifically to the prostate, according Dr. William G. Drew, “it (mercury) is involved in almost all problems related to the prostate gland”. He goes on to say that it is the leading cause of impotence in men. If you have amalgam fillings, you have toxic exposure to mercury. For years the medical community has supported the use of amalgams as safe, but in light of overwhelming evidence to the contrary, many are now realizing the harm that has been done. A Swedish study published in EPIDEMOLOGY 11-2000, showed that people with amalgams, who chewed gum had twice the amount of mercury in the blood as those who also had amalgams but didn’t chew gum. It is imperative to rid the body of mercury. This can be accomplished thru an oral chealation program. Two primary sources for accomplishing this are Chlorella selenium, mega doses of vitamin C and Nutrition 2000’s Metalmint. This may explain in part why you are 63% less likely to develop prostate cancer if you supplement with selenium.

    Researchers at the University of Michigan have concluded that there is at least a contributing role played by virus in the formation of prostate cancer. One virus that shows up in a very high percentage of men with prostate cancer is the virus called BK. Researchers have theorized that Bk may infect a healthy prostate cell and then it will produce an antigen called Tag. This antigen it is believed contributes to uncontrolled growth in what was a normal cell. Another study, conducted by the University of Pittsburgh, reported that the Herpesvirus 8 (hhv-8) was found at much higher levels in men who had prostate cancer than those who don’t.

    In her book THE CURE FOR ALL CANCERS, Dr. Hulda Clark, Ph.D., N.D., makes the argument that a combination of chemical solvents such as propyl alcohol and alfatoxin B mold are primary growth factors for cancer. That by eliminating these you can stop the growth of cancer. Foods that you should avoid are beer, peanuts, over ripe fruits, fruit juices and bulk grains (foods from grains such as cereal, flour and corn meal). She also points out the need to kill off  fungal overgrowth in the gut. A byproduct of the Penicillim mold is a mycotoxin called patulin, it has been shown that patulin will inhibit the body’s Tumor Necrosis Factor(TNF). TNF is an immune response to a mutant cell and is usually quite adequate to eliminate a cell before it develops into a tumor. The Parathyroid gland will normally make TNF, but not in the presence of patulin. Apple juice has been tested to have 1 PPM of this known carcinogen. If you have or want to avoid cancer, you must produce TNF and to do this you must eliminate toxins and chemical solvents. In another book written by Ronald Gdanski, CANCER - CAUSE, CURE and COVER-UP,  he postulates that cancer is the result of an injury to the body in the presence of fungus. The fungus triggers a growth response to this area, which results in cancer as the body tries to repair the injury.. We would refer you to these books and especially the work of Dr. Clark. Candida yeast infections are very toxic, there are 79 known toxins which are released as a byproduct of Candida’s metabolism, this is analogous to eating a poisonous mushroom for lunch each day. These toxins impact the immune system and overwhelm the liver. In addition to the toxins, the metabolic waste is very acidic and this effects your PH.

    Dr. Otto Warberg, two time Nobel Prize Winner with his work showing the connection of oxygen and cancer, postulated that as oxygen levels drop below a certain point, normal cells would adapt to this environment by becoming cancerous. If oxygen levels are normal it will encourage normal cell growth. Normal cells utilize oxygen combined with ATP (cell fuel) to create energy while a cancerous cell will use fermented sugar as its energy source. It would therefore make a great deal of sense to foster the right environment for normal cell growth. There are several ways to accomplish this, first would be to bring up the alkalinity of the tissues. By raising the PH .1, you multiply the available oxygen by a factor of 10. Dr.Warberg took normal cells and kept them healthy until he reduced the oxygen. Once the oxygen levels were reduced, the cells would mutate into cancerous cells, they would grow until he added the oxygen back, they would then die or revert back into normal cells. His research led to the findings that cancer will go into remission when the body PH gets to 7.4 and cancer cells will die at a PH of 8.4. This level of PH is not anything you would want to maintain, but normal cells will tolerate this PH long enough for the cancer cells to die. In his book “THE PROSTATE MIRACLE”, Dr Jesse Stoff stated that research shows that when cancer cells are put in a medium with energy rich ATP (cell fuel), the cancer cells will revert back to normal. For ATP to be utilized by the cells mitochondria, the body produces Co enzyme Q10 as a cofactor for ATP. In the presence of ATP plus CoQ10 and ample oxygen, the cells can produce energy. The body has pathways to convert fat, carbohydrates and protein into ATP from the food we eat or the fat we have stored. CoQ10 like many enzymes, has a tendency to drop off as we age, this makes supplementing necessary. Without exercise and or deep breathing, especially in an acid body, oxygen levels are likely to be deficient. If either one of the components (ATP, CoQ 10 enzyme, or oxygen) are missing then no energy can be produced. The B vitamins and especially b-12 and niacin are necessary for energy production as well. A cancerous cell utilizes sugar as its energy source instead of the fuel we just described, this may help explain why the body allows cancer to develop. Diet and exercise are two primary factors in raising the PH and supplying enough oxygen. Supplementing with alkalizing minerals such as calcium, magnesium and potassium and/or getting them thru your diet help’s to alkalize you, avoiding foods such as soft drinks and sugar, which are acid forming are as important as getting alkalizing nutrients. The right kind of salt is another factor to consider, as it will not only alkalize but provide the proper salinity. Part of Nutrition 2000’s program is a strong effort to bring your body into the proper PH.

    Back to Top
  5. Diet

    There is a lot of talk about diet and prostate cancer risk.  But we all eat such a variety of different things that any association between diet and illness is very difficult to prove.  Two new studies, both in the February 2004 Journal of Clinical Oncology, examine this relationship between obesity and prostate cancer recurrence. A very large Europe wide research study is looking into diet and several different types of cancer, including prostate cancer.  Thousands of people are taking part and recording what they eat and drink.  The researchers will follow their progress for more than 10 years and see who gets what. 

    Experiments at the University of Virginia Cancer Center have shown that arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid mainly found in meat and animal products, stimulates the growth of prostate cancer cells through the production of a metabolite, 5-HETE (5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid). The researchers found that 5-HETE is essential for the survival of prostate cancer cells and that these cells are completely eradicated (in vitro) in a few hours by blocking the production of 5-HETE. They conclude that a high intake of dietary fats accelerates the progression of prostate cancer and that arachidonic acid is intimately involved in this process. They also suggest that drugs which inhibit the formation of 5-HETE may prove useful in the battle against prostate cancer.

    As with many other cancers, diets high in animal fat and low in fresh fruit and vegetables may increase prostate cancer risk.  Tomatoes and tomato products in particular may help protect against prostate cancer.  Tomatoes contain something called 'lycopene'.   This is a carotenoid, meaning that it is similar to vitamin A.  Lycopene has now been associated with blood levels of a chemical called IGF-1 and prostate cancer risk.(Click here for more information about diet)

    Back to Top
  6. IGF-1 or Insulin like Growth Factor

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a potent stimulator of prostate cancer cell growth. It is mostly found in the blood bound to its carrier, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Only the unbound form of IGF-1 has a cancer promoting effect.

    A team of researchers from Harvard Medical School and the University of California has just completed a major study aimed at determining if IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels can predict the risk of developing advanced stage prostate cancer. Their study involved 530 patients with prostate cancer and 534 controls matched for sex and smoking status. All participants were part of the Physicians' Health Study and were between the ages of 40 and 84 years at enrollment in 1982. Almost 15,000 of the men provided blood samples that were stored for future analysis. By the end of 1995, 786 cases of prostate cancer had been diagnosed among the 14,916 participants (5.2%). Sufficient blood plasma for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 analysis was available for 530 of the cases and their matched 534 controls. The diagnosis of prostate cancer was made an average of 9 years after the drawing of the blood samples.

    The researchers observed a strong association between IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels and the risk of advanced prostate cancer, but found no association with early stage disease. They found that men with IGF levels in the highest quartile had a 5.1 times higher risk of later developing advanced stage prostate cancer than did men in the lowest quartile. Men with IGFBP-3 levels in the highest quartile, on the other hand, had a 5 times lower risk of later advanced stage cancer (OR=0.2). Advanced stage prostate cancer was defined as stage C (extraprostatic, but no evidence of distant metastases) or stage D (distant metastatic or fatal). About 10% of the total 530 cases were stage D. The researchers speculate that IGF- 1 not only stimulates tumour initiation and growth, but may also facilitate invasion and metastases. They conclude that measurement of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels may predict the risk of advanced stage prostate cancer years before the cancer is actually diagnosed and may thus be helpful in aiding decision making about treatment.

    Back to Top

  7. Hormones

    Study after study has found a correlation between these two hormones to be a telling indicator of overall health in men, but especially indicative for prostate disease and cancer. As men age testosterone levels fall, this is caused by 5-alpha reductase and aromatase enzymes in part. Aromatase acts on testosterone to metabolize it into estrogen. A potent form of estrogen, called estradiol is one of the primary estrogens that is produced and it increases as men age. Estrogen is also produced by fat cells, it is ironic that estrogen is known to cause the body to store fat and then the fat makes more estrogen. One study reported in Journal of Clinical Oncology stated that obese men were at greater risk of developing more aggressive prostate cancer and that they were more likely to have a recurance. A problem faced by men today as never before, is that chemicals such as herbicides, pesticides, household chemicals and even plastic is absorbed into the body and once there it mimics estradol. These are known as xenoestrogen’s and are proven carcinogens. The last source of estrogen we want to discuss is that which we receive by way of milk and meat. Farmers are giving livestock large amounts of estrogen as growth hormone to increase milk and meat production. Their residue’s are absorbed into our bodies when we consume them. This explains in part the correlation of both milk and meat consumption to prostate cancer. It is the dominance of estrogen which accumulates in a man’s body from estrogen via the breakdown of testosterone, production of estrogen by the fat cells, the effects of man made chemicals and heavy metals such as mercury and cadmium and the hormones we ingest via milk and meat, which act on the body as estrogen. This accumulation causes a shift from testosterone dominance in the body to estrogen dominance which causes much of the prostate issues and lack of virility in men today. A case in point is sperm counts; they are down in the average man by 25% compared to men 50 years ago. The protocol utilized by Nutrition 2000 balances testosterone and estrogen to bring men back into a normal hormonal level.

    This is testosterone that has been acted upon by an enzyme called 5-alpha reductase. DHT is a very powerful stimulant of prostate cell growth, in fact DHT is up to ten times more powerful than testosterone. Another effect of DHT is male pattern balding. A study reported in the journal Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention found men with male pattern balding had a 50% higher risk of developing prostate cancer and that men 60 to 69 had almost three times the risk of high-grade cancer. Many herbs can act to block 5-alpha reductase; saw palmetto is one of the best. UC Berkley researchers found DIM, a chemical found in cruciferous vegetables, inhibits the action of DHT and cancer cells treated with DIM grew 70% less than untreated cancer cells. Pharmaceutical companies have tried to formulate a chemical to do this, finastride is one example. Test shows that saw palmetto is more effective and has no harmful side effects. Yet another enzyme that causes DHT is prolactin. This rises in times of stress, alcohol consumption and aging. Researchers at Georgetown were able to kill cancer cells by blocking the signaling mechanism for prolactin, this is a protein called Stat5. Melatonin has been shown to inhibit prolactin, although it is produced as we sleep, it is a good idea to supplement with melatonin. According to research done at USC, their conclusions about DHT were that it is the strongest evidence we have relating PC to testosterone. Doctors have resorted to castration in an attempt to control testosterone, when the evidence points to DHT and not testosterone as a causal factor in prostate cancer. Research from the National Cancer Institute, ITT Research Institute and NYU School of Medicine, all show that DHEA (a precursor for testosterone) may actually be used to fight prostate cancer. Nutrition 2000 prostate cancer protocol inhibits DHT.

    Back to Top

  8. Vasectomy

    One question that crops up over and over again is whether having a vasectomy (the procedure that stops a man from making a woman pregnant) can lead to a later diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    First of all, it has to be said that men who have vasectomies do appear to be more likely to have a diagnosis of prostate cancer 20 years later than men who do not have vasectomies. However, it also has to be said that there is absolutely no evidence whatsoever of a cause and effect relationship. Indeed, there is good reason to believe that this is a statistical coincidence that has to do with the attitudes to health of men most likely to have vasectomies.

    Basically, men who have vasectomies exhibit what is widely described as "health-seeking" behavior. In other words, they are the type of men who look after their health, tend to go for regular check-ups, and generally have a lifestyle which could be considered as "healthy." They are presumed to be more likely to have vasectomies because they have considered that the risks associated with a vasectomy are far lower than the risks associated with their wife/partner having a late or unwanted pregnancy.

    Now it is also reasonable to suppose that men who exhibit health-seeking behavior are more likely to seek regular prostate examinations as part of that behavior. This immediately implies that the same men who seek vasectomies are more likely to have a prostate examination than the men who do not have vasectomies. Therefore these men are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer!

    The bottom line is that men who have vasectomies are somewhere between 1.5 and 2.0 times more likely to have a later diagnosis of prostate cancer than men who have not had a vasectomy ... but that we have no reason to believe that there is any connection between the two.

    Back to Top
Home Media Testimonials Contact Us